Ancient Egypt / Ptolemaic dynasty /
Cleopatra 7 Philopator
(69- 30 BCE) Queen of Ancient Egypt, belonging to the Ptolemaic dynasty and de facto ruler of Egypt from 51 to 30 BCE.
Cleopatra revived the Ptolemaic powers through diplomatic skills, in addition to her using her personality to make alliances with Roman rulers, and to have Egyptian competitors murdered. Her fame is connected to a turbulent life of love affairs with the most influential men of her time.
Her actual achievements had importance only for a short period of time with the revival of Ptolemaic powers but nothing seemed to last.
Her life story has inspired playwrights and movie makers, making her the most famous personality of Ancient Egypt.
69 BCE: Born as the daughter of Ptolemy 12 Neos Dionysios.
51: Cleopatra is made joint ruler with her 12 year old brother ,Ptolemy 13, as the two marry.
48: Ptolemy takes full control over Egypt, driving Cleopatra into exile in Syria. Civil war breaks out between Cleopatra and her brother.
47: Ptolemy is drowned by the Roman general, Julius Caesar.
Cleopatra is proclaimed queen of Egypt. She marries her 11 year old brother, Ptolemy 13, which is the only legitimate way she can be in power, but she chooses to become the mistress of Julius Caesar, with whom she travels to Rome to live. The couple have the son Caesarion together, and later Cleopatra gives birth to Ptolemy 14, who, according to the mother, also was the son of Julius Caesar.
44: Julius Caesar is killed and Cleopatra returns to Egypt.
After Cleopatra has Ptolemy 13 poisoned, she becomes the real ruler, although the nominal ruler is her infant son, Ptolemy 14.
41: Cleopatra forms an alliance with the Roman general, Mark Antony, based upon their romantic relationship.
40: Mark Antony is called back to Rome, where he marries Octavia, the sister of the Roman consul, Octavian. Soon after, Cleopatra gives birth to twins.
36: Cleopatra marries Mark Antony in Antioch and later a third child of the two is born. The couple plan to establish a vast kingdom, in which the sons of Caesar and Mark Antony by Cleopatra are to be the inheritors.
34: After Mark Antony has successfully met the Parthians in war, he returns to Alexandria with Cleopatra, where they announce that the old kingdom of Alexander the Great is to belong to the descendants of Cleopatra.
32: Octavian, the legitimate successor to Julius Caesar, declares war against Mark Antony and Cleopatra. Mark Antony divorces Octavia.
31: At the battle at Actium, Cleopatra and Mark Antony are defeated by Octavian. Octavian hunts them down, all the way to Egypt.
30: In Alexandria, when Mark Antony is separated from Cleopatra, he is surrounded by the troops of Octavian and when he hears the rumour that Cleopatra has committed suicide, he kills himself by falling on his sword.
Cleopatra surrenders to Octavian and tries to make him her lover. When this doesn't prove successful, she poisons herself, or has herself bitten by a snake and dies. Her sons, Caesarion and Ptolemy 14, are then murdered and the Ptolemaic dynasty has come to the final end.
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